Overview: We identified 79 scholarly studies that met our criteria for adding to knowledge about the well-being of children with gay or lesbian parents. Of those studies, 75 concluded that children of gay or lesbian parents fare no worse than other children. While many of the sample sizes were small, and some studies lacked a control group, researchers regard such studies as providing the best available knowledge about child adjustment, and do not view large, representative samples as essential. We identified four studies concluding that children of gay or lesbian parents face added disadvantages.
LGBT Parenting in the United States
Same-sex Parents and Their Children
Studies estimate that between 1 and 9 million children in the United States have at least one parent who is lesbian or gay. There are approximately , same-sex partner households, according to the Census, and there are children living in approximately 27 percent of those households. It is difficult to obtain an accurate count of same-sex parent families because many lesbians and gay men are not open about their sexual orientation due to fears of discrimination, such as loss of employment, loss of child custody, and antigay violence. Some same-sex couples may decide to have a child within their relationship, while others may bring children from previous heterosexual or same-sex unions. The rise in same-sex parenting is partially due to the increase in options available for same-sex couples to become parents. Although most children of same-sex couples are biological children of one of the parents, a growing number are the result of donor insemination, surrogacy, foster care and adoption. Most research studies show that children with two moms or two dads fare just as well as children with heterosexual parents.
LGBT Adoption Statistics
Using data from several national surveys, this research brief provides demographic information about LGBT people and same-sex couples who are raising children in the United States. This research brief analyzes multiple data sources to provide a demographic portrait of LGBT parenting in the United States. This research brief offers analyses from several data sources to provide a demographic portrait of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT parenting in the United States.
Using data from the American Community Survey, this report provides estimates of the number of same-sex parents in the U. In , an estimated , United States households were headed by a same-sex couple 1. Between and , 2